Over 80 % of marine water pollution comes from land-based actions such as oil, toxic chemicals, solid waste, sewage, and fertilizers. Oil leaks are a massive problem and cause significant harm to marine life in our water resources. Oil leaks are only responsible for 12 % of the oil that goes into the ocean every year. According to a study by the Nation Research Council of the United States, 36 % comes down from rivers as waste from cities and the industries (Marine problems: Pollution). Another cause of oil leaks is the discharge of freight residues from huge cargo ships. These huge cargo ships contaminate the ports, rivers, and oceans. Water pollution is also caused when rainwater washes off plowed fields to rivers, ponds, and oceans carrying fertilizers and waste. Moreover, these suspended materials are loaded with toxic materials that are contained in fertilizer materials such as phosphates and nitrates. With excess quantities of these nutrients, the marine vegetation and planktons have difficulties in growth. thus, food for underwater marine life becomes limited.
Another significant source of water contamination includes raw sewage that has harmful substances in it and cannot only harm marine life but can as well, harm human life. Raw sewage carries a risky quantity of infectious bacteria, harmful substances, and harmful viruses. Untreated sewage is supposed to be carried through wastewater pipes to treatment plants for processing. Although there are regulations to assist in securing the environment against raw sewage going into rivers, lakes, and oceans, most of these facilities are old, and the wastewater pipes are broken and worn-out from the overload of sewage. Owing to this issue, there is a direct release of raw sewer into lakes, rivers, and oceans. There are quite a number of other methods of releasing untreated sewage into the ocean. .This release of raw sewage consists of overflows of sewage that usually occur when runoff water goes into damaged and corroded pipes. .