Read the paper from Karamitros et al (PNAS, 2018) and answer the following questions:
1) How can retroviral integrations possibly affect human health?
2) What is the significance of a polymorphic HK2 integration?
3) What do you think ‘rs26907’ is?
4) What is the physiological role of Rasgrf2 in humans?
5) What is PCR? Explain the observed results in Figures 1A and 1B.
6) Describe Figure 1H.
7) What do the terms “sense” and “antisense” (that are used frequently in the article) mean?
8) What is a cell line? List all the cell lines used in the paper and describe their tissue origins.
9) Syncytin-2 is a human protein with an important role in the implantation of the blastocyst in the endometrium. Research this protein’s evolutionary origins. Based on your findings, can you conclude whether all endogenous retroviruses are neutral when it comes to evolutionary advantages?
10) What is the overall conclusion of this study?