“fallacy of positive instances”

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
1. Professor Karney administered a psychological test measuring shyness to a large
number of undergraduate students. The students also completed a lengthy questionnaire
on their social life and activities, including number of friends. Professor Karney
conducted a statistical analysis of the responses and found a correlation coefficient of
–.80 between level of shyness and number of friends. This indicates that:
A) as number of friends increases, level of shyness increases.
B) as number of friends decreases, level of shyness increases.
C) there is no relationship between level of shyness and number of friends.
D) a cause-and-effect relationship exists between shyness and number of friends.
2. According to Psych For Your Life: Successful Study Techniques, which of the
following studying strategies should you AVOID?
A) Using flashcards.
B) Taking notes on your laptop.
C) Studying while multitasking.
D) Taking notes by hand.
3. Who among the following individuals was NOT a key scientist in the development of
behaviorism?
A) Sigmund Freud
B) Ivan Pavlov
C) John B. Watson
D) B. F. Skinner
4. Sigmund Freud’s school of thought, called _____, emphasized the role of unconscious
conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
A) structuralism
B) functionalism
C) psychoanalysis
D) behaviorism
5. While Freud emphasized _____, Rogers emphasized _____.
A) unconscious conflicts; conscious experiences
B) unconscious conflicts; overt, measurable behavior
C) development; sexuality
D) favorable mental health; mental illness
Page 1
6. When thinking like a scientist, it is important to:
A) engage in critical thinking.
B) utilize a costs-benefits analysis.
C) identify unconscious motivations.
D) avoid speculating about the truth.
7. Which of the following individuals can prescribe medications?
A) Noah, who is a counseling psychologist
B) Sara, who has a doctorate in school psychology
C) Roman, who is a psychiatrist
D) Lin, who is an educational psychologist
8. The second step of the scientific method is to:
A) analyze the data to arrive at conclusions.
B) formulate a specific question that can be tested.
C) report the results.
D) design a study and collect relevant data.
9. Professor Wallace studied over 3,000 elderly individuals for a decade and found a
statistically significant relationship between survival rate and number of close friends.
Specifically, he found that elderly individuals with few close friends had a much higher
death rate. To say that the results of his study are “statistically significant” means that:
A) the finding has great practical value and significance.
B) there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables.
C) the finding does not have to be replicated to be accepted by the scientific
community.
D) the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance.
10. Dr. Ginsburg wants to study possible gender differences in the willingness of young
children to engage in risky behaviors. To gather data, Ginsburg and a co-researcher
carefully observe the willingness of boys and girls to try risky behaviors at a local zoo,
such as petting a burro or feeding different animals. Dr. Ginsburg is using _____ to
gather data.
A) naturalistic observation
B) a survey
C) the case study method
D) a representative sample
Page 2
11. Dr. Dalpiez conducts research with mice, pigs, and chimpanzees. Dr. Dalpiez’s
specialization is in _____ psychology.
A) clinical
B) experimental
C) comparative
D) educational
12. Mary Whiton Calkins:
A) founded the first psychology laboratory in America at Yale University.
B) studied with Sigmund Freud and became the first female psychoanalyst in the
United States.
C) is best known for her pioneering research on comparative psychology and her book
The Animal Mind.
D) conducted research on personality, dreams, and memory, and became the first
woman president of the American Psychological Association.
13. Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological
processes are:
A) subject to the principles of natural selection.
B) unconscious.
C) overt and observable.
D) dynamic and ever changing.
14. Evidence that is the result of observation, measurement, and experimentation is referred
to as _____ evidence.
A) empirical
B) pseudoscientific
C) operational
D) dependent
15. A collectivistic culture is one in which:
A) individual achievements are highly valued.
B) a person’s social behavior is influenced more by individual preference than cultural
values and norms.

Posted in Uncategorized

“fallacy of positive instances”

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
1. Professor Karney administered a psychological test measuring shyness to a large
number of undergraduate students. The students also completed a lengthy questionnaire
on their social life and activities, including number of friends. Professor Karney
conducted a statistical analysis of the responses and found a correlation coefficient of
–.80 between level of shyness and number of friends. This indicates that:
A) as number of friends increases, level of shyness increases.
B) as number of friends decreases, level of shyness increases.
C) there is no relationship between level of shyness and number of friends.
D) a cause-and-effect relationship exists between shyness and number of friends.
2. According to Psych For Your Life: Successful Study Techniques, which of the
following studying strategies should you AVOID?
A) Using flashcards.
B) Taking notes on your laptop.
C) Studying while multitasking.
D) Taking notes by hand.
3. Who among the following individuals was NOT a key scientist in the development of
behaviorism?
A) Sigmund Freud
B) Ivan Pavlov
C) John B. Watson
D) B. F. Skinner
4. Sigmund Freud’s school of thought, called _____, emphasized the role of unconscious
conflicts in determining behavior and personality.
A) structuralism
B) functionalism
C) psychoanalysis
D) behaviorism
5. While Freud emphasized _____, Rogers emphasized _____.
A) unconscious conflicts; conscious experiences
B) unconscious conflicts; overt, measurable behavior
C) development; sexuality
D) favorable mental health; mental illness
Page 1
6. When thinking like a scientist, it is important to:
A) engage in critical thinking.
B) utilize a costs-benefits analysis.
C) identify unconscious motivations.
D) avoid speculating about the truth.
7. Which of the following individuals can prescribe medications?
A) Noah, who is a counseling psychologist
B) Sara, who has a doctorate in school psychology
C) Roman, who is a psychiatrist
D) Lin, who is an educational psychologist
8. The second step of the scientific method is to:
A) analyze the data to arrive at conclusions.
B) formulate a specific question that can be tested.
C) report the results.
D) design a study and collect relevant data.
9. Professor Wallace studied over 3,000 elderly individuals for a decade and found a
statistically significant relationship between survival rate and number of close friends.
Specifically, he found that elderly individuals with few close friends had a much higher
death rate. To say that the results of his study are “statistically significant” means that:
A) the finding has great practical value and significance.
B) there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two variables.
C) the finding does not have to be replicated to be accepted by the scientific
community.
D) the results are unlikely to have occurred by chance.
10. Dr. Ginsburg wants to study possible gender differences in the willingness of young
children to engage in risky behaviors. To gather data, Ginsburg and a co-researcher
carefully observe the willingness of boys and girls to try risky behaviors at a local zoo,
such as petting a burro or feeding different animals. Dr. Ginsburg is using _____ to
gather data.
A) naturalistic observation
B) a survey
C) the case study method
D) a representative sample
Page 2
11. Dr. Dalpiez conducts research with mice, pigs, and chimpanzees. Dr. Dalpiez’s
specialization is in _____ psychology.
A) clinical
B) experimental
C) comparative
D) educational
12. Mary Whiton Calkins:
A) founded the first psychology laboratory in America at Yale University.
B) studied with Sigmund Freud and became the first female psychoanalyst in the
United States.
C) is best known for her pioneering research on comparative psychology and her book
The Animal Mind.
D) conducted research on personality, dreams, and memory, and became the first
woman president of the American Psychological Association.
13. Psychologists who take the evolutionary perspective assume that psychological
processes are:
A) subject to the principles of natural selection.
B) unconscious.
C) overt and observable.
D) dynamic and ever changing.
14. Evidence that is the result of observation, measurement, and experimentation is referred
to as _____ evidence.
A) empirical
B) pseudoscientific
C) operational
D) dependent
15. A collectivistic culture is one in which:
A) individual achievements are highly valued.
B) a person’s social behavior is influenced more by individual preference than cultural
values and norms.

Posted in Uncategorized