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1 Million+ Step-by-step solutionsmath books Q:Most fish need at least 4 ppm dissolved O2 forMost fish need at least 4 ppm dissolved O2 for survival.
(a) What is this concentration in mol/L?
(b) What partial pressure of O2 above the water is needed to obtain this concentration at 10 oC? (The Henry’s law constant for O2 at this temperature is 1.71 × 10-3 mol/L-atm)?
Q:The presence of the radioactive gas radon (Rn) in wellThe presence of the radioactive gas radon (Rn) in well water obtained from aquifers that lie in rock deposits presents a possible health hazard in parts of the United States.
(a) Assuming that the solubility of radon in water with 1 atm pressure of the gas over the water at 30 oC is 7.27 × 10-3, what is the Henry’s law constant for radon in water at this temperature?
(b) A sample consisting of various gases contains 3.5 × 10-6 mole fraction of radon. This gas at a total pressure of 32 atm is shaken with water at 30 oC. Calculate the molar concentration of radon in the water?
Q:Glucose makes up about 0.10% by mass of human blood.Glucose makes up about 0.10% by mass of human blood. Calculate the concentration in (a) ppm,
Q:The concentration of gold in seawater has been reported toThe concentration of gold in seawater has been reported to be between 5 ppt (parts per trillion) and 50 ppt. Assuming that seawater contains 13 ppt of gold, calculate the number of grams of gold contained in 1.0 × 103 gal of seawater?
Q:The maximum allowable concentration of lead in drinking water isThe maximum allowable concentration of lead in drinking water is 9.0 ppb.
Q:Acetonitrile (CH3CN) is a polar organic solvent that dissolves aAcetonitrile (CH3CN) is a polar organic solvent that dissolves a wide range of solutes, including many salts. The density of a 1.80 M LiBr solution in acetonitrile is 0.826 g/cm3. Calculate the concentration of the solution in
(a) Molality,
(b) Mole fraction of LiBr,
(c) Mass percentage of CH3CN?
Q:A “canned heat” product used to warm chafing dishes consistsA “canned heat” product used to warm chafing dishes consists of a homogeneous mixture of ethanol (C2H5OH) and paraffin that has an average formula of C24H50. What mass of C2H5OH should be added to 620 kg of the paraffin in formulating the mixture if the vapor pressure of ethanol at 35 oC over the mixture is to be 8 torr? The vapor pressure of pure ethanol at 35 oC is 100 torr?
Q:(a) Based on the following energy profile, predict whether kf(a) Based on the following energy profile, predict whether kf > or kf (b) Using Equation 15.5, predict whether the equilibrium constant for the process is greater than 1 or less than 1.
(a) Based on the following energy profile, predict whether kfQ:(a) Assuming the volume is 2 L, calculate the equilibrium(a) Assuming the volume is 2 L, calculate the equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction.
(b) If the volume of the equilibrium mixture is decreased, will the number of AB molecules increase or decrease?
Q:The protein hemoglobin (Hb) transports O2 in mammalian blood. EachThe protein hemoglobin (Hb) transports O2 in mammalian blood. Each Hb can bind 4 O2 molecules. The equilibrium constant for the O2-binding reaction is higher in fetal hemoglobin than in adult hemoglobin. In discussing protein oxygen binding capacity, biochemists use a measure called the P50 value, defined as the partial pressure of oxygen at which 50% of the protein is saturated. Fetal hemoglobin has a P50 value of 19 torr, and adult hemoglobin has a P50 value of 26.8 torr. Use these data to estimate how much larger Kc is for the aqueous reaction 4 O2(g) + Hb(aq) → [Hb(O2)4(aq)]?
Q:The A atoms are red, and the B atoms areThe A atoms are red, and the B atoms are blue. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?
Q:The following graph represents the yield of the compound ABThe following graph represents the yield of the compound AB at equilibrium in the reaction A(g) + B(g) → AB(g) at two different pressures, x and y, as a function of temperature.
The following graph represents the yield of the compound AB

(a) In this reaction exothermic or endothermic?
(b) Is P = x grater or smaller than P = y?

Q:Suppose that the gas-phase reactions A → B and BSuppose that the gas-phase reactions A → B and B → A are both elementary processes with rate constants of 4.7 × 10-3 s-1 and 5.8 × 10-1 s-1, respectively.
Suppose that the gas-phase reactions A → B and BQ:(a) Which species predominate at equilibrium, reactants or products? (b) Which(a) Which species predominate at equilibrium, reactants or products?
(b) Which reaction has the larger rate constant, the forward or the reverse? Explain.
Q:Write the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. In each case indicate whether the reaction is homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Write the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expression for Kc for the following reactions. InQ:Write the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. In each case indicate whether the reaction is homogeneous or heterogeneous.
Write the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InWrite the expressions for Kc for the following reactions. InQ:When the following reactions come to equilibrium, does the equilibriumWhen the following reactions come to equilibrium, does the equilibrium mixture contain mostly reactants or mostly products?
When the following reactions come to equilibrium, does the equilibriumWhen the following reactions come to equilibrium, does the equilibriumQ:Can the equilibrium constant ever be a negative number? Explain.Can the equilibrium constant ever be a negative number? Explain.
Q:The following diagrams represent a hypothetical reaction A → B,The following diagrams represent a hypothetical reaction A → B, with A represented by red spheres and B represented by blue spheres. The sequence from left to right represents the system as time passes. Do the diagrams indicate that the system reaches an equilibrium state? Explain.
The following diagrams represent a hypothetical reaction A → B,Q:Can the equilibrium constant ever be zero? ExplainCan the equilibrium constant ever be zero? Explain
Q:If Kc = 0.042 for PCI3(g) + CI2(g) PCI5(g)If Kc = 0.042 for PCI3(g) + CI2(g) PCI5(g) at 500 K, what is the value of Kp for this reaction at this temperature?

If Kc = 0.042 for PCI3(g) + CI2(g)  PCI5(g)Q:Calculate Kc at 303 K for SO2(g) + CI2(g) SO2CI2(g)Calculate Kc at 303 K for SO2(g) + CI2(g) SO2CI2(g) if Kp = 34.5 at this temperature?

Calculate Kc at 303 K for SO2(g) + CI2(g) SO2CI2(g)Q:The equilibrium constant for the reaction Is Kc = 1.3 ×The equilibrium constant for the reaction
The equilibrium constant for the reaction 
Is Kc = 1.3 ×

Is Kc = 1.3 × 10-2 at 1000 K.

The equilibrium constant for the reaction 
Is Kc = 1.3 ×

(c) Calculate Kc for NOBr(g) → NO(g) + ½ Br2(g)?

Q:Consider the following equilibrium: (a) Calculate Kp. (b) Does the equilibriumConsider the following equilibrium:
Consider the following equilibrium: 
(a) Calculate Kp.  
(b) Does the equilibrium

(a) Calculate Kp.
(b) Does the equilibrium mixture contain mostly H2 and S2 or mostly H2S?
(c) Calculate the values of Kc and Kp if you rewrote the balanced chemical equation with 1 mol of H2(g) instead of 2 mol?

Q:At 1000 K, Kp = 1.85 for the reaction (c) WhatAt 1000 K, Kp = 1.85 for the reaction
At 1000 K, Kp = 1.85 for the reaction 
(c) WhatAt 1000 K, Kp = 1.85 for the reaction 
(c) WhatAt 1000 K, Kp = 1.85 for the reaction 
(c) What

(c) What is the value of Kc for the reaction in part (b)?

Q:Consider the following equilibrium, for which Kp = 0.0752 atConsider the following equilibrium, for which Kp = 0.0752 at 480 oC:
Consider the following equilibrium, for which Kp = 0.0752 atConsider the following equilibrium, for which Kp = 0.0752 at

(b) HCI(g) + ½ O2 (g)?
(c) What is the value of Kc for the reaction in part (b)?

Q:The following equilibrium were attained at 823 K:The following equilibrium were attained at 823 K:
The following equilibrium were attained at 823 K:The following equilibrium were attained at 823 K:The following equilibrium were attained at 823 K:Q:Consider the equilibrium Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction,Consider the equilibrium
Consider the equilibrium 
Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction,

Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction, given the following information (at 298 K):

Consider the equilibrium 
Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction,Consider the equilibrium 
Calculate the equilibrium constant Kp for this reaction,Q:Explain why we normally exclude pure solids and liquids fromExplain why we normally exclude pure solids and liquids from equilibrium-constant expressions?
Q:The following diagram represents an equilibrium mixture produced for aThe following diagram represents an equilibrium mixture produced for a reaction of the type A + X AX. If the volume is 1 L, is K greater or smaller than 1?

The following diagram represents an equilibrium mixture produced for aThe following diagram represents an equilibrium mixture produced for aQ:Explain why we normally exclude solvents from liquid-phase reactions inExplain why we normally exclude solvents from liquid-phase reactions in equilibrium-constant expressions?
Q:Methanol (CH3OH) is produced commercially by the catalyzed reaction ofMethanol (CH3OH) is produced commercially by the catalyzed reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen: CO(g) + 2 H2(g) CH3OH(g). An equilibrium mixture in a 2.00-L vessel is found to contain 0.0406 mol CH3OH, 0.170 mol CO, and 0.302 mol H2 at 500 K. Calculate Kc at this temperature?

Methanol (CH3OH) is produced commercially by the catalyzed reaction ofQ:(a) Calculate Kp for this reaction at 500.0 K. (b) If(a) Calculate Kp for this reaction at 500.0 K.
(b) If the vessel has a volume of 5.00 L, calculate Kc at this temperature?
Q:Phosphorus trichloride gas and chlorine gas react to form phosphorusPhosphorus trichloride gas and chlorine gas react to form phosphorus pentachloride gas:
Phosphorus trichloride gas and chlorine gas react to form phosphorus

(a) What is the value of Kp at this temperature?
(b) Does the equilibrium favor reactants or products?
(c) Calculate Kc for this reaction at 450 K?

Q:A mixture of 0.10 mol of NO, 0.050 mol ofA mixture of 0.10 mol of NO, 0.050 mol of H2, and 0.10 mol of H2O is placed in a 1.0-L vessel at 300 K. The following equilibrium is established:
A mixture of 0.10 mol of NO, 0.050 mol of

At equilibrium [NO] = 0.062.
(a) Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of H2, N2, and H2O.
(b) Calculate Kc?

Q:A mixture of 1.374 g of H2 and 70.31 gA mixture of 1.374 g of H2 and 70.31 g of Br2 is heated in a 2.00 – L vessel at 700 K. These substances react according to
A mixture of 1.374 g of H2 and 70.31 g

At equilibrium the vessel is found to contain 0.566 g of H2.
(a) Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of H2, Br2, and HBr.
(b) Calculate Kc?

Q:A mixture of 0.2000 mol of CO2, 0.1000 mol ofA mixture of 0.2000 mol of CO2, 0.1000 mol of H2, and 0.1600 mol of H2O is placed in a 2.000-L vessel. The following equilibrium is established at 500 K:
A mixture of 0.2000 mol of CO2, 0.1000 mol of

(a) Calculate the initial partial pressures of CO2, H2, and H2O.
(b) At equilibrium Calculate the equilibrium partial pressures of CO2, H2, and CO.
(c) Calculate Kp for the reaction.
(d) Calculate Kc for the reaction?

Q:The following diagram represents a reaction shown going to completion. (a)The following diagram represents a reaction shown going to completion.
(a) Letting A = red spheres and B = blue spheres, write a balanced equation for the reaction.
(b) Write the equilibrium- constant expression for the reaction.
(c) Assuming that all of the molecules are in the gas phase, calculate (n, the change in the number of gas molecules that accompanies the reaction.
(d) How can you calculate Kp if you know Kc at a particular temperature?
The following diagram represents a reaction shown going to completion. 
(a)Q:A flask is charged with 1.500 atm of N2O4(g) andA flask is charged with 1.500 atm of N2O4(g) and 1.00 atm NO2(g) at 25 oC, and the following equilibrium is achieved:
A flask is charged with 1.500 atm of N2O4(g) and

After equilibrium is reached, the partial pressure of NO2 is 0.512 atm.
(a) What is the equilibrium partial pressure of N2O4?
(b) Calculate the value of Kp for the reaction.
(c) Calculate Kc for the reaction?

Q:Two different proteins X and Y are dissolved in aqueousTwo different proteins X and Y are dissolved in aqueous solution at 37 °C. The proteins bind in a 1:1 ratio to form XY. A solution that is initially 1.00 mM in each protein is allowed to reach equilibrium. At equilibrium, 0.20 mM of free X and 0.20 mM of free Y remain. What is Kc for the reaction?
Q:A chemist at a pharmaceutical company is measuring equilibrium constantsA chemist at a pharmaceutical company is measuring equilibrium constants for reactions in which drug candidate molecules bind to a protein involved in cancer. The drug molecules bind the protein in a 1:1 ratio to form a drug-protein complex. The protein concentration in aqueous solution at is 25 oC is 1.50 × 10-6 M. Drug A is introduced into the protein solution at an initial concentration of 2.00 × 10-6 M Drug B is introduced into a separate, identical protein solution at an initial concentration of 2.00 × 10-6 M. At equilibrium, the drug A-protein solution has an A-protein complex concentration of 1.00 × 10-6 M and the drug B solution has a B-protein complex concentration of 1.40 × 10-6 M Calculate the Kc value for the A-protein binding reaction and for the B-protein binding reaction. Assuming that the drug that binds more strongly will be more effective, which drug is the better choice for further research?
Q:(a) How does a reaction quotient differ from an equilibrium(a) How does a reaction quotient differ from an equilibrium constant?
(b) If Qc (c) What condition must be satisfied so that Qc = Kc?
Q:(a) How is a reaction quotient used to determine whether(a) How is a reaction quotient used to determine whether a system is at equilibrium?
(b) If Qc > Kc, how must the reaction proceed to reach equilibrium?
(c) At the start of a certain reaction, only reactants are present; no products have been formed. What is the value of Qc at this point in the reaction?
Q:(a) [COCI2] = 2.00 × 10-3 M, [CO] = 3.3(a) [COCI2] = 2.00 × 10-3 M, [CO] = 3.3 × 10-6 M, [CI2] = 6.62 × 10-6 M; [CI2] = 6.62 × 10-6 M;
(b) [COCI2] = 4.50 × 10-2 M, [CO] = 1.1 × 10-7 M, [CI2] = 2.25 × 10-6 M;
(c) [COCI2] = 0.0100 M, [CO] = [CI2] = 1.48 × 10-6 M?
Q:As shown in Table 15.2, Kp for the equilibrium is 4.51As shown in Table 15.2, Kp for the equilibrium
As shown in Table 15.2, Kp for the equilibrium 
is 4.51

is 4.51 × 10-5 at 450 oC. For each of the mixtures listed here, indicate whether the mixture is at equilibrium at 450 oC. If it is not at equilibrium, indicate the direction (toward product or toward reactants) in which the mixture must shift to achieve equilibrium.
(a) 98 atm NH3, 45 atm N2, 55 atm H2
(b) 57 atm NH3, 143 atm N2, no H2
(c) 13 atm NH3, 27 atm N2, 82 atm H2?

Q:At 100 oC, Kc = 0.078 for the reaction In anAt 100 oC, Kc = 0.078 for the reaction
At 100 oC, Kc = 0.078 for the reaction 
In an

In an equilibrium mixture of the three gases, the concentrations of SO2Cl2 and SO2 are 0.108 M and 0.052 M, respectively. What is the partial pressure of Cl2 in the equilibrium mixture?

Q:(a) At 1285 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction(a) At 1285 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction Br2(g) 2 Br(g) is Kc = 1.04 × 10-3 is . A 0.200-L vessel containing an equilibrium mixture of the gases has 0.245 g Br2(g) in it. What is the mass of Br(g) in the vessel?
(b) For the reaction H2(g) + I2(g) 2 HI(g), Kc = 55.3 at 700 K. In a 2.00-L flask containing an equilibrium mixture of the three gases, there are 0.056 g H2 and 4.36 g I2. What is the mass of HI in the flask?

(a) At 1285 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction(a) At 1285 oC the equilibrium constant for the reactionQ:A friend says that the faster the reaction, the largerA friend says that the faster the reaction, the larger the equilibrium constant. Is your friend correct? Why or why not?
Q:(a) At 800 K the equilibrium constant for I2(g) 2(a) At 800 K the equilibrium constant for I2(g) 2 I(g) is Kc = 3.1 × 10-5. If an equilibrium mixture in a 10.0-L vessel contains 2.67 × 10-2 g of I(g), how many grams of I2 are in the mixture?
(b) For 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) 2 SO3(g), Kp = 3.0 × 104 at 700 K. In a 2.00-L vessel the equilibrium mixture contains 1.17 g of SO3 and 0.105 g of O2. How many grams of SO2 are in the vessel?

(a) At 800 K the equilibrium constant for I2(g) 2(a) At 800 K the equilibrium constant for I2(g) 2Q:At 2000 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction Is KcAt 2000 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction
At 2000 oC the equilibrium constant for the reaction 
Is Kc

Is Kc = 2.4 × 103. If the initial concentration of NO is 0.175 M, what are the equilibrium concentrations of NO, N2, and O2?

Q:For the equilibrium at 400 K, Kc = 7.0. IfFor the equilibrium
For the equilibrium  
at 400 K, Kc = 7.0. If

at 400 K, Kc = 7.0. If 0.25 mol of Br2 and 0.55 mol of Cl2 are introduced into a 3.0-L container at 400 K, what will be the equilibrium concentrations of Br2, Cl2, and BrCl?

Q:At 373 K, Kp = 0.416 for the equilibrium If theAt 373 K, Kp = 0.416 for the equilibrium
At 373 K, Kp = 0.416 for the equilibrium 
If the

If the pressure of NOBr(g) and NO(g) are equal, what is the equilibrium pressure of Br2(g)?

Q:At 218 oC, Kc = 1.2 × 10-4 for theAt 218 oC, Kc = 1.2 × 10-4 for the equilibrium
At 218 oC, Kc = 1.2 × 10-4 for the

Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of NH3 and H2S if a sample of solid NH4SH is placed in a closed vessel at 218 oC and decomposes until equilibrium is reached?

Q:Consider the reaction At the equilibrium constant is Kc =Consider the reaction
Consider the reaction  
At the equilibrium constant is Kc =

At the equilibrium constant is Kc = 2.4 × 10-5 for this reaction.

Q:At 80 oC, Kc = 1.87 × 10-3 for theAt 80 oC, Kc = 1.87 × 10-3 for the reaction
At 80 oC, Kc = 1.87 × 10-3 for the

(a) Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of PH3 and BCl3 if a solid sample of PH3BCl3 is placed in a closed vessel at and decomposes until equilibrium is reached.
(b) If the flask has a volume of 0.250 L, what is the minimum mass of PH3BCl3(s) that must be added to the flask to achieve equilibrium?

Q:For the reaction I2 + Br2(g) , Kc = 280For the reaction I2 + Br2(g) , Kc = 280 at 150 oC. Suppose that 0.500 mol IBr in a 2.00-L flask is allowed to reach equilibrium at 150 oC. What are the equilibrium concentrations of IBr, I2, and Br2?

For the reaction I2 + Br2(g) , Kc = 280Q:At 25 oC the reactionAt 25 oC the reaction
At 25 oC the reactionQ:Methane, CH4, reacts with I2 according to the reaction At 630Methane, CH4, reacts with I2 according to the reaction
Methane, CH4, reacts with I2 according to the reaction 
At 630

At 630 K, Kp for this reaction is 2.26 × 10-4. A reaction was set up at 630 K with initial partial pressures of methane of 105.1 torr and of 7.96 torr for I2. Calculate the pressures, in torr, of all reactants and products at equilibrium?

Q:A certain chemical reaction has Kc = 1.5 × 106.A certain chemical reaction has Kc = 1.5 × 106. Does this mean that at equilibrium there are 1.5 × 106 times as many product molecules as reactant molecules? Explain.
Q:The reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol, inThe reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol, in organic solvent, to produce an ester and water is commonly done in the pharmaceutical industry. This reaction is catalyzed by strong acid (usually H2SO4). A simple example is the reaction of acetic acid with ethyl alcohol to produce ethyl acetate and water:
The reaction of an organic acid with an alcohol, inQ:Consider the following equilibrium for which (H Consider the following equilibrium for which (HConsider the following equilibrium for which (H < 0 
How will

How will each of the following changes affect an equilibrium mixture of the three gases:
(a) O2(g) is added to the system1;
(b) The reaction mixture is heated;
(c) The volume of the reaction vessel is doubled;
(d) A catalyst is added to the mixture;
(e) The total pressure of the system is increased by adding a noble gas;
(f) SO3(g) is removed from the system?

Q:(a) Increase [NH3], increase yield NO (b) Increase [H2O], decrease yield(a) Increase [NH3], increase yield NO
(b) Increase [H2O], decrease yield NO
(c) Decrease [O2], decrease yield NO
(d) Decrease container volume, decrease yield NO (fewer moles gas in reactants)
(e) Add catalyst, no change
(f) Increase temperature, decrease yield NO (reaction is exothermic)?
Q:How do the following changes affect the value of theHow do the following changes affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a gas-phase exothermic reaction:
(a) Removal of a reactant
(b) Removal of a product,
(c) Decrease in the volume,
(d) Decrease in the temperature,
(e) Addition of a catalyst?
Q:For a certain gas-phase reaction, the fraction of products inFor a certain gas-phase reaction, the fraction of products in an equilibrium mixture is increased by either increasing the temperature or by increasing the volume of the reaction vessel.
(a) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?
(b) Does the balanced chemical equation have more molecules on the reactant side or product side?
Q:Consider the following equilibrium between oxides of nitrogen (a) Use dataConsider the following equilibrium between oxides of nitrogen
Consider the following equilibrium between oxides of nitrogen 
(a) Use data

(a) Use data in Appendix C to calculate (Ho for this reaction.
(b) Will the equilibrium constant for the reaction increase or decrease with increasing temperature? Explain.
(c) At constant temperature, would a change in the volume of the container affect the fraction of products in the equilibrium mixture?

Q:Methanol (CH3OH) can be made by the reaction of COMethanol (CH3OH) can be made by the reaction of CO with H2:
Methanol (CH3OH) can be made by the reaction of CO

(a) Use thermochemical data in Appendix C to calculate (Ho for this reaction.
(b) To maximize the equilibrium yield of methanol, would you use a high or low temperature?
(c) To maximize the equilibrium yield of methanol, would you use a high or low pressure?

Q:Ozone, O3, decomposes to molecular oxygen in the stratosphere accordingOzone, O3, decomposes to molecular oxygen in the stratosphere according to the reaction
2 O3(g) → 3 O2(g).
Would an increase in pressure favor the formation of ozone or of oxygen?
Q:Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants.Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants. Many pollutants contain only carbon and hydrogen (oil being one example). The chemical reactions are complicated, but in general the microorganisms react the pollutant hydrocarbon with O2 to produce CO2 and other carbon- containing compounds that are incorporated into the organism’s biomass. How would increasing levels of CO2 in the environment affect the bioremediation reaction?
Q:Both the forward reaction and the reverse reaction in theBoth the forward reaction and the reverse reaction in the following equilibrium are believed to be elementary steps:
Both the forward reaction and the reverse reaction in the

At 25 oC the rate constants for the forward and reverse reactions are 1.4 × 10-28 M-1s-1 and 9.3 × 1010 M-1s-1, respectively.
(a) What is the value for the equilibrium constant at 25 oC?
(b) Are reactants or products more plentiful at equilibrium?
(c) What additional information would you need in order to decide whether the reaction as written is endothermic or exothermic?

Q:Ethene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction: TheEthene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction:
Ethene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction: 
The

The following figures represent the concentrations at equilibrium at the same temperature when X2 is Cl2 (green), Br2 (brown), and I2 (purple). List the equilibria from smallest to largest equilibrium constant.
(a)

Ethene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction: 
The

(b)

Ethene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction: 
The

(c)

Ethene (C2H4) reacts with halogens (X2) by the following reaction: 
TheQ:A mixture of CH4 and H2O is passed over aA mixture of CH4 and H2O is passed over a nickel catalyst at 1000 K. The emerging gas is collected in a 5.00-L flask and is found to contain 8.62 g of CO, 2.60 g of H2, 43.0 g of CH4, and 48.4 g of H2O. Assuming that equilibrium has been reached, calculate Kc and Kp for the reaction?
Q:When 2.00 mol of SO2Cl2 is placed in a 2.00-LWhen 2.00 mol of SO2Cl2 is placed in a 2.00-L flask at 303 K, 56% of the SO2Cl2 decomposes to SO2 and Cl2:
When 2.00 mol of SO2Cl2 is placed in a 2.00-L

(a) Calculate Kc for this reaction at this temperature.
(b) Calculate Kp for this reaction at 303 K.?
(c) Repeat these calculations for 2.00 mol of SO2Cl2 in a 15.00-L vessel at 303 K?

Q:A mixture of H2, S, and H2S is held inA mixture of H2, S, and H2S is held in a 1.0 – L vessel at 90 oC and reacts according to the equation:
A mixture of H2, S, and H2S is held in

At equilibrium the mixture contains 0.46 g of H2S and 0.40 g H2.
(a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for this reaction.
(b) What is the value of Kc for the reaction at this temperature?
(c) Why can we ignore the amount of S when doing the calculation in part (b)?

Q:A sample of nitrosyl bromide (NOBr) decomposes according to theA sample of nitrosyl bromide (NOBr) decomposes according to the equation
A sample of nitrosyl bromide (NOBr) decomposes according to the

An equilibrium mixture in a 5.00-L vessel at 100 oC contains 3.22 g of NOBr, 3.08 g of NO, and 4.19 g of Br2.
(a) Calculate Kc.
(b) What is the total pressure exerted by the

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