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1 Million+ Step-by-step solutionsmath books Q:What is the mass of solute in 24.5 mL ofWhat is the mass of solute in 24.5 mL of 0.755 M CoCl2?
Q:What is the mass of solute in 3.81 L ofWhat is the mass of solute in 3.81 L of 0.0232 M Zn(NO3)2?
Q:What volume of solution is needed to provide 9.04 gWhat volume of solution is needed to provide 9.04 g of NiF2 from a 0.332 M solution?
Q:What volume of solution is needed to provide 0.229 gWhat volume of solution is needed to provide 0.229 g of CH2O from a 0.00560 M solution?
Q:What volume of 3.44 M HCl will react with 5.33What volume of 3.44 M HCl will react with 5.33 mol of CaCO3?
2HCl + CaCO3 ( CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
Q:At 300°C, the vapor pressure of Hg is 32.97 torr.At 300°C, the vapor pressure of Hg is 32.97 torr. What mass of Au would have to be dissolved in 5.00 g of Hg to lower its vapor pressure to 25.00 torr?
Q:If 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in 100.0 gIf 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in 100.0 g of H2O, what is the boiling point of this solution?
Q:If 123 g of C10H16O are dissolved in 355 gIf 123 g of C10H16O are dissolved in 355 g of C6H6, what is the boiling point of this solution?
Q:If 1 mol of solid CBr4 is mixed with 2If 1 mol of solid CBr4 is mixed with 2 mol of CCl4, what is the boiling point of this solution?
Q:A solution of C2H2O4 in CH3COOH has a boiling pointA solution of C2H2O4 in CH3COOH has a boiling point of 123.40°C. What is the molality of the solution?
Q:If 123 g of C10H16O are dissolved in 355 gIf 123 g of C10H16O are dissolved in 355 g of C6H6, what is the freezing point of this solution?
Q:If 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in 100.0 gIf 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in 100.0 g of H2O, what is the freezing point of this solution?
Q:C8H17OH is a nonvolatile solid that dissolves in C6H12. IfC8H17OH is a nonvolatile solid that dissolves in C6H12. If 7.22 g of C8H17OH is dissolved in 45.3 g of C6H12, what is the freezing point of this solution?
Q:A solution of C2H2O4 in CH3COOH has a freezing pointA solution of C2H2O4 in CH3COOH has a freezing point of 10.00°C. What is the molality of the solution?
Q:If 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in H2O toIf 25.0 g of C6H12O6 are dissolved in H2O to make 0.100 L of solution, what is the osmotic pressure of this solution at 25°C?
Q:If 2.33 g of C27H46O are dissolved in liquid CS2If 2.33 g of C27H46O are dissolved in liquid CS2 to make 50.00 mL of solution, what is the osmotic pressure of this solution at 298 K?
Q:At 298 K, what concentration of solution is needed toAt 298 K, what concentration of solution is needed to have an osmotic pressure of 1.00 atm?
Q:The osmotic pressure of blood is about 7.65 atm atThe osmotic pressure of blood is about 7.65 atm at 37°C. What is the approximate concentration of dissolved solutes in blood?
Q:If 125 g of N2 are mixed with 175 gIf 125 g of N2 are mixed with 175 g of O2, what is the mole fraction of each component?
Q:If 36.5 g of NaCl are mixed with 63.5 gIf 36.5 g of NaCl are mixed with 63.5 g of H2O, what is the mole fraction of each component?
Q:An alloy of stainless steel is prepared from 75.4 gAn alloy of stainless steel is prepared from 75.4 g of Fe, 12.6 g of Cr, and 10.8 g of C. What is the mole fraction of each component?
Q:A solution is made by mixing 12.0 g of C10H8A solution is made by mixing 12.0 g of C10H8 in 45.0 g of C6H6. If the vapor pressure of pure C6H6 is 76.5 torr at a particular temperature, what is the vapor pressure of the solution at the same temperature?
Q:A solution is made by mixing 43.9 g of C6H12O6A solution is made by mixing 43.9 g of C6H12O6 in 100.0 g of H2O. If the vapor pressure of pure water is 26.5 torr at a particular temperature, what is the vapor pressure of the solution at the same temperature?
Q:At 300°C, the vapor pressure of Hg is 32.97 torr.At 300°C, the vapor pressure of Hg is 32.97 torr. If 0.775 g of Au were dissolved into 3.77 g of Hg, what would be the vapor pressure of the solution?
Q:Assuming an ideal van’t Hoff factor, what mole fraction isAssuming an ideal van’t Hoff factor, what mole fraction is required for a solution of Mg(NO3)2 to have a vapor pressure of 20.00 torr at 25.0°C torr? The vapor pressure of the solvent is 23.61 torr at this temperature.
Q:Calculate the boiling point of an aqueous solution of NaNO3Calculate the boiling point of an aqueous solution of NaNO3 made by mixing 15.6 g of NaNO3 with 100.0 g of H2O. Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:Many labs use a cleaning solution of KOH dissolved inMany labs use a cleaning solution of KOH dissolved in C2H5OH. If 34.7 g of KOH were dissolved in 88.0 g of C2H5OH, what is the boiling point of this solution? The normal boiling point of C2H5OH is 78.4°C and its Kb = 1.19°C/m. Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:What is the freezing point of a solution made byWhat is the freezing point of a solution made by dissolving 345 g of CaCl2 in 1,550 g of H2O? Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:A classic homemade ice cream can be made by freezingA classic homemade ice cream can be made by freezing the ice cream mixture using a solution of 250 g of NaCl dissolved in 1.25 kg of ice water. What is the temperature of this ice water? Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:Seawater can be approximated as a 3.5% NaCl solution bySeawater can be approximated as a 3.5% NaCl solution by mass; that is, 3.5 g of NaCl are combined with 96.5 g H2O. What is the osmotic pressure of seawater? Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:The osmotic pressure of blood is 7.65 atm at 37°C.The osmotic pressure of blood is 7.65 atm at 37°C. If blood were considered a solution of NaCl, what is the concentration of NaCl in blood? Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:What is the vapor pressure of an aqueous solution ofWhat is the vapor pressure of an aqueous solution of 36.4 g of KBr in 199.5 g of H2O if the vapor pressure of H2O at the same temperature is 32.55 torr? What other solute(s) would give a solution with the same vapor pressure? Assume an ideal van’t Hoff factor.
Q:For sanitary reasons, water in pools should be chlorinated toFor sanitary reasons, water in pools should be chlorinated to a maximum level of 3.0 ppm. In a typical 5,000 gal pool that contains 21,200 kg of water, what mass of chlorine must be added to obtain this concentration?
Q:Given its notoriety, you might think that uranium is veryGiven its notoriety, you might think that uranium is very rare, but it is present at about 2–4 ppm of the earth’s crust, which is more abundant than silver or mercury. If the earth’s crust is estimated to have a mass of 8.50 × 1020 kg, what range of mass is thought to be uranium in the crust?
Q:Chromium is thought to be an ultratrace element, with aboutChromium is thought to be an ultratrace element, with about 8.9 ng present in a human body. If the average body mass is 75.0 kg, what is the concentration of chromium in the body in pptr?
Q:What mass of 3.00% H2O2 solution is needed to produceWhat mass of 3.00% H2O2 solution is needed to produce 35.7 g of O2(g) at 295 K at 1.05 atm pressure?
2H2O2(aq) ( 2H2O(ℓ) + O2(g)
Q:What volume of pool water is needed to generate 1.000What volume of pool water is needed to generate 1.000 L of Cl2(g) at standard temperature and pressure if the pool contains 4.0 ppm HOCl and the water is slightly acidic? The chemical reaction is as follows:
HOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) ( H2O(ℓ) + Cl2(g)
Assume the pool water has a density of 1.00 g/mL.
Q:A 0.500 m solution of MgCl2 has a freezing pointA 0.500 m solution of MgCl2 has a freezing point of −2.60°C. What is the true van’t Hoff factor of this ionic compound? Why is it less than the ideal value?
Q:The osmotic pressure of a 0.050 M LiCl solution atThe osmotic pressure of a 0.050 M LiCl solution at 25.0°C is 2.26 atm. What is the true van’t Hoff factor of this ionic compound? Why is it less than the ideal value?
Q:Order these solutions in order of increasing boiling point, assumingOrder these solutions in order of increasing boiling point, assuming an ideal van’t Hoff factor for each: 0.10 m C6H12O6, 0.06 m NaCl, 0.4 m Au(NO3)3, and 0.4 m Al2(SO4)3.
Q:Order these solutions in order of decreasing osmotic pressure, assumingOrder these solutions in order of decreasing osmotic pressure, assuming an ideal van’t Hoff factor: 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M CaCl2, 0.05 M MgBr2, and 0.07 M Ga(C2H3O2)3
Q:What mass of FeCl2 is present in 445 mL ofWhat mass of FeCl2 is present in 445 mL of 0.0812 M FeCl2 solution?
Q:What mass of SO2 is present in 26.8 L ofWhat mass of SO2 is present in 26.8 L of 1.22 M SO2 solution?
Q:What volume of 0.225 M Ca(OH)2 solution is needed toWhat volume of 0.225 M Ca(OH)2 solution is needed to deliver 100.0 g of Ca(OH)2?
Q:What volume of 12.0 M HCl solution is needed toWhat volume of 12.0 M HCl solution is needed to obtain exactly 1.000 kg of HCl?
Q:The World Health Organization recommends that the maximum fluoride ionThe World Health Organization recommends that the maximum fluoride ion concentration in drinking water is 1.0 ppm. Assuming water has the maximum concentration, if an average person drinks 1,920 mL of water per day, how many milligrams of fluoride ion are being ingested?
Q:Photographers’ hypo, used to fix negatives during the development process,Photographers’ hypo, used to fix negatives during the development process, is sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate. What is the chemical formula of this compound?
Q:Find the coefficients that balance the following equations. a. O2 +Find the coefficients that balance the following equations.
a. O2 + PCl3 → POCl3
b. P4 + N2O → P4O6 + N2
c. As2S3 + O2 → As2O3 + SO2
d. Ca3(PO4)2 + H3PO4 → Ca(H2PO4)2
Q:Chlorine consists of the following isotopes: What is the atomic massChlorine consists of the following isotopes:
Chlorine consists of the following isotopes: 
What is the atomic mass

What is the atomic mass of chlorine?

Q:By referring to the periodic table (Figure 2.15 or insideBy referring to the periodic table (Figure 2.15 or inside front cover), identify the group and period to which each of the following elements belongs. Then decide whether the element is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid.
a. Se
b. Cs
c. Fe
d. Cu
e. Br
Q:Potassium chromate is an important compound of chromium. It isPotassium chromate is an important compound of chromium. It is composed of K+ and CrO42 ions. Write the formula of the compound.
Q:Write the names of the following compounds: a. CaO, b. PbCrO4.Write the names of the following compounds:
a. CaO,
b. PbCrO4.
Q:Like Dalton, chemists continue to model atoms using spheres. ModernLike Dalton, chemists continue to model atoms using spheres. Modern models are usually drawn with a computer and use different colors to represent atoms of different elements. Which of the models below represents CO2?
Like Dalton, chemists continue to model atoms using spheres. ModernQ:What would be a feasible model for the atom ifWhat would be a feasible model for the atom if Geiger and Marsden had found that 7999 out of 8000 alpha particles were deflected back at the alpha-particle source?
Q:Identify the following compounds as being a hydrocarbon, an alcohol,Identify the following compounds as being a hydrocarbon, an alcohol, an ether, or a carboxylic acid.
Identify the following compounds as being a hydrocarbon, an alcohol,Q:You take a job with the U.S. Environmental Protection AgencyYou take a job with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inspecting college chemistry laboratories. On the first day of the job while inspecting Generic University you encounter a bottle with the formula Al2Q3 that was used as an unknown compound in an experiment. Before you send the compound off to the EPA lab for analysis, you want to narrow down the possibilities for element Q. What are the likely (real element) candidates for element Q?
Q:Describe atomic theory and discuss how it explains the greatDescribe atomic theory and discuss how it explains the great variety of different substances. How does it explain chemical reactions?
Q:Briefly explain how a mass spectrometer works. What kinds ofBriefly explain how a mass spectrometer works. What kinds of information does one obtain from the instrument?
Q:Solid sodium metal reacts with water, giving a solution ofSolid sodium metal reacts with water, giving a solution of sodium hydroxide and releasing hydrogen gas. Write a balanced equation for the reaction using complete formulas for the compounds with phase labels.
Q:An aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and barium hydroxide isAn aqueous solution of ammonium chloride and barium hydroxide is heated, and the compounds react to give off ammonia gas. Barium chloride solution and water are also products. Write a balanced equation for the reaction using complete formulas for the compounds with phase labels; indicate that the reactants are heated.
Q:Lead metal is produced by heating solid lead(II) sulfide withLead metal is produced by heating solid lead(II) sulfide with solid lead(II) sulfate, resulting in liquid lead and sulfur dioxide gas. Write a balanced equation for the reaction using complete formulas for the compounds with phase labels; indicate that the reactants are heated.
Q:Two samples of different compounds of nitrogen and oxygen haveTwo samples of different compounds of nitrogen and oxygen have the following compositions. Show that the compounds follow the law of multiple proportions. What is the ratio of oxygen in the two compounds for a fixed amount of nitrogen?
Two samples of different compounds of nitrogen and oxygen haveQ:Two samples of different compounds of sulfur and oxygen haveTwo samples of different compounds of sulfur and oxygen have the following compositions. Show that the compounds follow the law of multiple proportions. What is the ratio of oxygen in the two compounds for a fixed amount of sulfur?
Two samples of different compounds of sulfur and oxygen haveQ:In a series of oil-drop experiments, the charges measured onIn a series of oil-drop experiments, the charges measured on the oil drops were 3.20 × 10–19 C, –6.40 × 10–19 C, –9.60 × 10–19 C, and –1.12 × 10–18 C. What is the smallest difference in charge between any two drops? If this is assumed to be the charge on the electron, how many excess electrons are there on each drop?
Q:In a hypothetical universe, an oil-drop experiment gave the followingIn a hypothetical universe, an oil-drop experiment gave the following measurements of charges on oil drops: –5.55 × 10–19 C, –9.25 × 10–19 C, –1.11 × 10–18 C, and –1.48 × 10–18 C. Assume that the smallest difference in charge equals the unit of negative charge in this universe. What is the value of this unit of charge? How many units of excess negative charge are there on each oil drop?
Q:Compounds of europium, Eu, are used to make color televisionCompounds of europium, Eu, are used to make color television screens. The europium nucleus has a charge of +63. How many electrons are there in the neutral atom? in the Eu3+ ion?
Q:Cesium, Cs, is used in photoelectric cells (“electric eyes”). TheCesium, Cs, is used in photoelectric cells (“electric eyes”). The cesium nucleus has a charge of +55. What is the number of electrons in the neutral atom? in the Cs+ ion?
Q:A nucleus of mass number 81 contains 46 neutrons. AnA nucleus of mass number 81 contains 46 neutrons. An atomic ion of this element has 36 electrons in it. Write the symbol for this atomic ion (give the symbol for the nucleus and give the ionic charge as a right superscript).
Q:Define the term atomic mass. Why might the values ofDefine the term atomic mass. Why might the values of atomic masses on a planet elsewhere in the universe be different from those on earth?
Q:One isotope of a metallic element has mass number 80One isotope of a metallic element has mass number 80 and has 55 neutrons in the nucleus. An atomic ion has 23 electrons. Write the symbol for this ion (give the symbol for the nucleus and give the ionic charge as a right superscript).
Q:Obtain the fractional abundances for the two naturally occurring isotopesObtain the fractional abundances for the two naturally occurring isotopes of copper. The masses of the isotopes are 6329Cu, 62.9298 amu; 6529Cu, 64.9278 amu. The atomic mass is 63.546 amu.
Q:Silver has two naturally occurring isotopes, one of mass 106.91Silver has two naturally occurring isotopes, one of mass 106.91 amu and the other of mass 108.90 amu. Find the fractional abundances for these two isotopes. The atomic mass is 107.87 amu.
Q:Identify the following elements, giving their name and atomic symbol. a.Identify the following elements, giving their name and atomic symbol.
a. A nonmetal that is normally a liquid
b. A normally gaseous element in Group IA
c. A transition element in Group VB, Period 5
d. The halogen in Period 2
Q:Identify the following elements, giving their name and atomic symbol. a.Identify the following elements, giving their name and atomic symbol.
a. A normally liquid element in Group VIIA
b. A metal that is normally a liquid
c. A main-group element in Group IIIA, Period 4
d. The alkali metal in Period 5
Q:Give the names of the following ions. a. Cr3+ b. Pb4+ c. Cu+ d.Give the names of the following ions.
a. Cr3+
b. Pb4+
c. Cu+
d. Cu2+
Q:Give the names of the following ions. a. Mn2+ b. Ni2+ c. Co2+ d.Give the names of the following ions.
a. Mn2+
b. Ni2+
c. Co2+
d. Co3+
Q:Name the following compounds. a. Sn3(PO4)2 b. NH4NO2 c. Mg(OH)2 d. CrSO4Name the following compounds.
a. Sn3(PO4)2
b. NH4NO2
c. Mg(OH)2
d. CrSO4
Q:Name the following compounds. a. Cu(NO2)2 b. (NH4)3P c. Na2SO4 d. HgCl2Name the following compounds.
a. Cu(NO2)2
b. (NH4)3P
c. Na2SO4
d. HgCl2
Q:Give the formulas for the following compounds. a. Mercury(I) sulfide b. Cobalt(III)Give the formulas for the following compounds.
a. Mercury(I) sulfide
b. Cobalt(III) sulfite
c. Ammonium dichromate
d. Aluminum nitride
Q:Give the formulas for the following compounds. a. Hydrogen peroxide b. AluminumGive the formulas for the following compounds.
a. Hydrogen peroxide
b. Aluminum phosphate
c. Lead(IV) phosphide
d. Boron trifluoride
Q:Name the following molecular compounds. a. AsBr3 b. H2Se c. P2O5 d. SiO2Name the following molecular compounds.
a. AsBr3
b. H2Se
c. P2O5
d. SiO2
Q:Name the following molecular compounds. a. ClF4 b. CS2 c. NF3 d. SF6Name the following molecular compounds.
a. ClF4
b. CS2
c. NF3
d. SF6
Q:Balance the following equations. a. C2H6 + O2 → CO2 Balance the following equations.
a. C2H6 + O2 → CO2 H2O
b. P4O6 + H2O → H3PO3
c. KClO3 → KCl + KClO4
d. (NH4)2SO4 + NaOH → NH3 + H2O Na2SO4
e. NBr3 + NaOH → N2 + NaBr + HOBr
Q:Balance the following equations. a. NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 +Balance the following equations.
a. NaOH + H3PO4 → Na3PO4 + H2O
b. SiCl4 + H2O → SiO2 + HCl
c. Ca3(PO4)2 + C → Ca3P2 + CO
d. H2S + O2 ±£ SO2 + H2O
e. N2O5 → NO2 + O2
Q:A monatomic ion has a charge of +2. The nucleusA monatomic ion has a charge of +2. The nucleus of the ion has a mass number of 62. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is 1.21 times that of the number of protons. How many electrons are in the ion? What is the name of the element?
Q:A monatomic ion has a charge of +1. The nucleusA monatomic ion has a charge of +1. The nucleus of the ion has a mass number of 85. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is 1.30 times that of the number of protons. How many electrons are in the ion? What is the name of the element?
Q:Natural carbon, which has an atomic mass of 12.011 amu,Natural carbon, which has an atomic mass of 12.011 amu, consists of carbon-12 and carbon 13 isotopes. Given that the mass of carbon-13 is 13.00335 amu, what would be the average atomic mass (in amu) of a carbon sample prepared by mixing equal numbers of carbon atoms from a sample of natural carbon and a sample of pure carbon-13?
Q:Natural chlorine, which has an atomic mass of 35.4527 amu,Natural chlorine, which has an atomic mass of 35.4527 amu, consists of chlorine-35 and chlorine-37 isotopes. Given that the mass of chlorine-35 is 34.96885 amu, what is the average atomic mass (in amu) of a chlorine sample prepared by mixing equal numbers of chlorine atoms from a sample of natural chlorine and a sample of pure chlorine-35?
Q:Describe the island of stability. What nuclide is predicted toDescribe the island of stability. What nuclide is predicted to be most stable?
Q:Correct any mistakes in the naming of the following compoundsCorrect any mistakes in the naming of the following compounds or ions.
SO3: sulfite
NO2: nitrite
PO43: phosphite ion
N2: nitride
Mg(OH)2: maganese dihydroxide
Q:Aluminum is reacted with sulfur to form a binary compound.Aluminum is reacted with sulfur to form a binary compound. Write the balanced chemical reaction and write the name of the compound formed by the reaction.
Q:A hypothetical element X is found to have an atomicA hypothetical element X is found to have an atomic mass of 37.45 amu. Element X has only two isotopes, X-37 and X-38. The X-37 isotope has a fractional abundance of 0.7721 and an isotopic mass of 37.24. What is the isotopic mass of the other isotope?
Q:A monotomic ion has a charge of +3. The nucleusA monotomic ion has a charge of +3. The nucleus of the ion has a mass number of 27. The number of neutrons in the nucleus is equal to the number of electrons in a S2 ion. Identify the element and indicate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Q:A small crystal of CaCl2 that weighs 0.12 g containsA small crystal of CaCl2 that weighs 0.12 g contains 6.5 × 1020 formula units of CaCl2. What is the total number of ions (cations and anions) that make up this crystal?
Q:Write the formulas and names for all the ionic compoundsWrite the formulas and names for all the ionic compounds that can form by combinations of the following ions: Mg2+, Pb4+, the carbonate anion, and the phosphide anion.
Q:Name the following compounds: SO3 HNO2 Mg3N3 HBr Cu3(PO4)2 CuSO4 ∙ 5H2OName the following compounds:
SO3
HNO2
Mg3N3
HBr
Cu3(PO4)2
CuSO4 ∙ 5H2O
Q:The IO3 anion is called iodate. There are three relatedThe IO3 anion is called iodate. There are three related ions: IO, IO2, and IO4. Using what you have learned about similar groups of anions, write the name for each of the following compounds:
Pb(IO3)2
KIO4
Zn(IO)2
Al(IO2)3
Q:There are 2.619 × 1022 atoms in 1.000 g ofThere are 2.619 × 1022 atoms in 1.000 g of sodium. Assume that sodium atoms are spheres of radius 1.86 Å and that they are lined up side by side. How many miles in length is the line of sodium atoms?
Q:There are 1.699 × 1022 atoms in 1.000 g ofThere are 1.699 × 1022 atoms in 1.000 g of chlorine. Assume that chlorine atoms are spheres of radius 0.99 Å and that they are lined up side by side. How many miles in length is the line of chlorine atoms?
Q:A sample of green crystals of nickel(II) sulfate heptahydrate wasA sample of green crystals of nickel(II) sulfate heptahydrate was heated carefully to produce the bluish green nickel(II) sulfate hexahydrate. What are the formulas of the hydrates? If 8.753 g of the heptahydrate produces 8.192 g of the hexahydrate, how many grams of anhydrous nickel(II) sulfate could be obtained?
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