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1 Million+ Step-by-step solutionsmath books Q:Although polyethylene can twist and turn in random ways, theAlthough polyethylene can twist and turn in random ways, the most stable form is a linear one with the carbon backbone oriented as shown in the following figure:
Although polyethylene can twist and turn in random ways, the

The solid wedges in the figure indicate bonds from carbon that come out of the plane of the page; the dashed wedges indicate bonds that lie behind the plane of the page.
(a) What is the hybridization of orbitals at each carbon atom? What angles do you expect between the bonds?
(b) Now imagine that the polymer is polypropylene rather than polyethylene. Draw structures for polypropylene in which
(i) The CH3 groups all lie on the same side of the plane of the paper (this form is called isotactic polypropylene);
(ii) The CH3 groups lie on alternating sides of the plane (syndiotactic polypropylene); or (iii) the CH3 groups are randomly distributed on either side (atactic polypropylene).Which of these forms would you expect to have the highest crystallinity and melting point, and which the lowest? Explain in terms of intermolecular interactions and molecular shapes.
(c) Polypropylene fibers have been employed in athletic wear. The product is said to be superior to cotton or polyester clothing in wicking moisture away from the body through the fabric to the outside. Explain the difference between polypropylene and polyester or cotton (which has many —- OH groups along the molecular chain) in terms of intermolecular interactions with water?

Q:(a) In polyvinyl chloride shown in Table 12.5, which bonds(a) In polyvinyl chloride shown in Table 12.5, which bonds have the lowest average bond enthalpy?
(b) When subjected to high pressure and heated polyvinyl chloride converts to diamond. During this transformation which bonds are most likely to break first?
(c) Employing the values of average bond enthalpy in Table 8.4, estimate the overall enthalpy change for converting PVC to diamond?
Q:Silicon has the diamond structure (Figure 12.30(a)) with unit cellSilicon has the diamond structure (Figure 12.30(a)) with unit cell edge length of 5.43 Å and eight atoms per unit cell.
(a) How many silicon atoms are there in of material?
(b) Suppose you dope that 1- sample of silicon with 1 ppm of phosphorus that will increase the conductivity by a factor of a million. How many milligrams of phosphorus are required?
Q:KCl has the same structure as NaCl. The length ofKCl has the same structure as NaCl. The length of the unit cell is 6.28 Å. The density of KCl is 1.984 g/cm3, and its formula mass is 74.55 amu. Using this information, calculate Avogadro’s number?
Q:Look up the diameter of a silicon atom, in Å.Look up the diameter of a silicon atom, in Å. The channel length in a Pentium 4 processor chip is 65 nm long. How many silicon atoms does this correspond to?
Q:Indicate the type of crystal (molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network)Indicate the type of crystal (molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network) each of the following would form upon solidification:
(a) InAs
(b) MgO
(c) HgS
(d) In
(e) HBr.
Q:(a) Draw a picture that represents a crystalline solid at(a) Draw a picture that represents a crystalline solid at the atomic level.
(b) Now draw a picture that represents an amorphous solid at the atomic level?
Q:Amorphous silica, SiO2, has a density of about 2.2 g/cm3,Amorphous silica, SiO2, has a density of about 2.2 g/cm3, whereas the density of crystalline quartz is 2.65g/cm3. Account for this difference in densities?
Q:Two patterns of packing different types of spheres are shownTwo patterns of packing different types of spheres are shown here. For each structure
(a) Draw the two-dimensional unit cell,
(b) Determine the angle between the lattice vectors, g, and whether the lattice vectors are the same length or of different lengths,
(c) Determine the type of two-dimensional lattice (from Figure 12.4)?
Two patterns of packing different types of spheres are shownQ:Two patterns of packing different types of spheres are shownTwo patterns of packing different types of spheres are shown here. For each structure
(a) Draw the two-dimensional unit cell,
(b) Determine the angle between the lattice vectors, g, and whether the lattice vectors are the same length or of different lengths,
(c) Determine the type of two-dimensional lattice (from Figure 12.4).
Two patterns of packing different types of spheres are shownQ:Of the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices, (a) Which hone hasOf the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices,
(a) Which hone has a unit cell where the a and b lattice vectors form are c tangular base, while the c lattice vector is perpendicular to the other two and of a different length?
(b) What is the lattice if the a and b lattice vectors form a square base and the c lattice vector is perpendicular to the other two and of a different length?
Q:(a)What kind of packing arrangement is seen in the accompanying(a)What kind of packing arrangement is seen in the accompanying photo?
(b) What is the coordination number of each cannonball in the interior of the stack?
(a)What kind of packing arrangement is seen in the accompanyingQ:Of the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices, (a) Which one has aOf the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices,
(a) Which one has a unit cell where the a and b lattice vectors form abase that is an arbitrary parallelogram (like the unit cell of a two-dimensional oblique lattice), while the c lattice vector is perpendicular to the other two?
(b)What is the lattice if the a and b lattice vectors form a base that corresponds to the two-dimensional hexagonal unit cell and the c lattice vector is perpendicular to the other two?
Q:Of the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices, which ones have aOf the seven three-dimensional primitive lattices, which ones have a unit cell where no two lattice vectors are perpendicular to each other?
Q:What is the minimum number of atoms that could beWhat is the minimum number of atoms that could be contained in the unit cell of an element with a body-centered cubic lattice?
Q:What is the minimum number of atoms that could beWhat is the minimum number of atoms that could be contained in the unit cell of an element with a face-centered cubic lattice?
Q:The unit cell of nickel arsenide is shown here. (a) WhatThe unit cell of nickel arsenide is shown here.
(a) What type of lattice does this crystal possess?
(b) What is the empirical formula?
The unit cell of nickel arsenide is shown here. 
(a) WhatQ:The unit cell of a compound containing strontium, iron, andThe unit cell of a compound containing strontium, iron, and oxygen is shown here.
(a) What type of lattice does this crystal possess (all three lattice vectors are mutually perpendicular)?
(b) What is the empirical formula?
The unit cell of a compound containing strontium, iron, andQ:The densities of the elements K, Ca, Sc, and TiThe densities of the elements K, Ca, Sc, and Ti are 0.86, 1.5, 3.2, and 4.5 g/cm3, respectively. What factors are likely to be of major importance in determining this variation? Which factor do you think will be the most important?
Q:Which of the following substances would you expect to possessWhich of the following substances would you expect to possess metallic properties:
(a) TiCl4,
(b) NiCo alloy,
(c) W,
(d) Ge,
(e) ScN?
Q:Consider the unit cells shown here for three different structuresConsider the unit cells shown here for three different structures that are commonly observed for metallic elements. (a)Which structure(s) corresponds to the densest packing of atoms? (b) Which structure(s) corresponds to the least dense packing of atoms?
Consider the unit cells shown here for three different structuresConsider the unit cells shown here for three different structuresConsider the unit cells shown here for three different structuresQ:Rhenium oxide crystallizes with a structure that has a primitiveRhenium oxide crystallizes with a structure that has a primitive cubic lattice, as shown here. In the image on the left, the sizes of the ions have been reduced to show the entire unit cell.
(a) How many atoms of each type are there per unit cell?
(b) Use the ionic radii of rhenium (0.70 Å) and oxygen (1.26 Å) to estimate the length of the edge of the unit cell.
(c) Use your answers to parts (a) and (b) to estimate the density of this compound.
Rhenium oxide crystallizes with a structure that has a primitiveQ:Sodium metal (atomic weight 22.99 g/cm3) adopts a body centeredSodium metal (atomic weight 22.99 g/cm3) adopts a body centered cubic structure with a density of 0.97 g/cm3.
(a) Use this information and Avogadro’s number (NA = 6.022 × 1023) to estimate the atomic radius of sodium.
(b) If it didn’t react so vigorously, sodium could float on water. Use the answer from part (a) to estimate the density of Na if its structure were that of a cubic close-packed metal. Would it still float on water?
Q:Iridium crystallizes in a face-centered cubic unit cell that hasIridium crystallizes in a face-centered cubic unit cell that has an edge length of 3.833 Å. (a) Calculate the atomic radius of an iridium atom.
(b) Calculate the density of iridium metal?
Q:Calcium crystallizes with a body-centered cubic structure. (a) How many CaCalcium crystallizes with a body-centered cubic structure.
(a) How many Ca atoms are contained in each unit cell?
(b) How many nearest neighbors does each Ca atom possess?
(c) Estimate the length of the unit cell edge, a, from the atomic radius of calcium (1.97 Å).
(d) Estimate the density of Ca metal?
Q:Aluminum metal crystallizes in a cubic close-packed structure [face-centered cubicAluminum metal crystallizes in a cubic close-packed structure [face-centered cubic cell, Figure 12.14(a)].
(a) How many aluminum atoms are in a unit cell?
(b) What is the coordination number of each aluminum atom?
(c) Estimate the length of the unit cell edge, a, from the atomic radius of aluminum (1.43 Å).
(d) Calculate the density of aluminum metal?
Q:An element crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. The edgeAn element crystallizes in a body-centered cubic lattice. The edge of the unit cell is 2.86 Å, and the density of the crystal is 7.92 g/cm3. Calculate the atomic weight of the element?
Q:Define the term alloy. Distinguish among solid solution alloys, heterogeneousDefine the term alloy. Distinguish among solid solution alloys, heterogeneous alloys, and intermetallic compounds?
Q:Distinguish between substitutional and interstitial alloys. What conditions favor formationDistinguish between substitutional and interstitial alloys. What conditions favor formation of substitutional alloys?
Q:For each of the following alloy compositions indicate whether youFor each of the following alloy compositions indicate whether you would expect it to be a substitutional alloy, an interstitial alloy, or an intermetallic compound:
(a) Fe0.97Si0.03,
(b) Fe0.60Ni0.40,
(c) SmCo5?
Q:For each of the following alloy compositions indicate whether youFor each of the following alloy compositions indicate whether you would expect it to be a substitutional alloy, an interstitial alloy, or an intermetallic compound:
(a) Cu0.66Zn0.34,
(b) Ag3Sn,
(c) Ti0.99O0.01?
Q:Classify each of the following statements as true or false: (a)Classify each of the following statements as true or false:
(a) Substitutional alloys tend to be more ductile than interstitial alloys.
(b) Interstitial alloys tend to form between elements with similar ionic radii.
(c) Nonmetallic elements are never found in alloys?
Q:The electronic structure of a doped semiconductor is shown here. (a)The electronic structure of a doped semiconductor is shown here.
(a) Which band, A or B, is the valence band?
(b) Which band is the conduction band?
(c) Which band consists of bonding molecular orbitals?
(d) Is this an example of ann-type or p-type doped semiconductor?
(e) If the semiconductor is germanium, which of the following elements could be the dopant: Ga, Si, or P?
The electronic structure of a doped semiconductor is shown here. 
(a)Q:Classify each of the following statements as true or false: (a)Classify each of the following statements as true or false:
(a) Intermetallic compounds have a fixed composition.
(b) Copper is the majority component in both brass and bronze.
(c) In stainless steel the chromium atoms occupy interstitial positions.
Q:Which element or elements are alloyed with gold to makeWhich element or elements are alloyed with gold to make the following types of “colored gold” used in the jewelry industry? For each type indicate what type of alloy is formed: (a) White gold,
(b) Rose gold,
(c) Blue gold,
(d) Green gold?
Q:What is the chemical composition of purple gold? Is theWhat is the chemical composition of purple gold? Is the composition variable? Why don’t jewelers use purple gold to make rings or necklaces?
Q:Explain how the electron-sea model accounts for the high electricalExplain how the electron-sea model accounts for the high electrical and thermal conductivity of metals?
Q:(a) Compare the electronic structures of atomic chromium and atomic(a) Compare the electronic structures of atomic chromium and atomic selenium. In what respects are they similar, and in what respects do they differ?
(b) Chromium is a metal, and selenium is a nonmetal. What factors are important in determining this difference in properties?
Q:The molecular-orbital diagrams for two- and four-atom linear chains ofThe molecular-orbital diagrams for two- and four-atom linear chains of lithium atoms are shown in Figure 12.23.
Construct a molecular-orbital diagram for a chain containing six lithium atoms and use it to answer the following questions.
(a) How many molecular orbitals are there in the diagram?
(b) How many nodes are in the lowest-energy molecular orbital?
(c) How many nodes are in the highestenergy molecular orbital?
(d) How many nodes are in the highest-energy occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)?
(e) How many nodes are in the lowest-energy unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)?
Q:Repeat Exercise 12.45 for a linear chain of eight lithiumRepeat Exercise 12.45 for a linear chain of eight lithium atoms?
Q:Which would you expect to be the more ductile element, (a)Which would you expect to be the more ductile element,
(a) Ag or Mo,
(b) Zn or Si? In each case explain your reasoning.
Q:How do you account for the observation that the alkaliHow do you account for the observation that the alkali metals, like sodium and potassium, are soft enough to be cut with a knife?
Q:Explain this trend in melting points: Y 1522 oC, ZrExplain this trend in melting points: Y 1522 oC, Zr 1852 oC, Nb 2468 oC, Mo 2617 oC?
Q:Shown here are cartoons of two different polymers. Based onShown here are cartoons of two different polymers. Based on these cartoons, which polymer would you expect to be denser? Which one would have the higher melting point?
Shown here are cartoons of two different polymers. Based onQ:For each of the following groups which metal would youFor each of the following groups which metal would you expect to have the highest melting point;
(a) Gold (Au), rhenium (Re), or cesium (Cs);
(b) Rubidium (Rb), molybdenum (Mo), or indium (In);
(c) ruthenium (Ru), strontium (Sr), or cadmium (Cd)?
Q:Tausonite, a mineral composed of Sr, O, and Ti, hasTausonite, a mineral composed of Sr, O, and Ti, has the cubic unit cell shown in the drawing.
(a) What is the empirical formula of this mineral?
(b) It is easy to see that Ti is coordinated by six oxygen atoms because the Ti atom is located at the center of the unit cell. To see the full coordination environment of the other ions, we have to consider neighboring unit cells.
How many oxygens are coordinated to strontium?
Tausonite, a mineral composed of Sr, O, and Ti, hasQ:Rutile is a mineral composed of Ti and O. ItsRutile is a mineral composed of Ti and O. Its unit cell, shown in the drawing, contains Ti atoms at each corner and a Ti atom at the center of the cell. Four O atoms are on the opposite faces of the cell, and two are entirely within the cell.
(a) What is the chemical formula of this mineral?
(b) What is the coordination number of each atom?
Q:NaF has the same structure as NaCl. (a) Use ionic radiiNaF has the same structure as NaCl.
(a) Use ionic radii from Chapter 7 to estimate the length of the unit cell edge for NaF.
(b) Use the unit cell size calculated in part (a) to estimate the density of NaF?
Q:Clausthalite is a mineral composed of lead selenide (PbSe). TheClausthalite is a mineral composed of lead selenide (PbSe). The mineral adopts a NaCl-type structure. The density of PbSe at 25 oC is 8.27 g/cm3. Calculate the length of an edge of the PbSe unit cell?
Q:A particular form of cinnabar (HgS) adopts the zinc blendeA particular form of cinnabar (HgS) adopts the zinc blende structure, Figure 12.26. The length of the unit cell edge is 5.852 Å.
(a) Calculate the density of HgS in this form.
(b) The mineral tiemmanite (HgSe) also forms a solid phase with the zinc blende structure. The length of the unit cell edge in this mineral is 6.085 Å. What accounts for the larger unit cell length in tiemmanite?
(c) Which of the two substances has the higher density? How do you account for the difference in densities?
Q:At room temperature and pressure RbI crystallizes with the NaCl-typeAt room temperature and pressure RbI crystallizes with the NaCl-type structure.
(a) Use ionic radii to predict the length of the cubic unit cell edge.
(b) Use this value to estimate the density.
(c) At high pressure the structure transforms to one with a CsCl-type structure. (c) Use ionic radii to predict the length of the cubic unit cell edge for the high-pressure form of RbI.
(d) Use this value to estimate the density. How does this density compare with the density you calculated in part (b)?
Q:CuI, CsI, and NaI each adopt a different type ofCuI, CsI, and NaI each adopt a different type of structure. The three different structures are those shown in Figure 12.26.
(a) Use ionic radii, Cs+ (r = 1.81 Å), Na+ (r = 1.16 Å), Cu+ (r = 0.74 Å), and 1- (r = 2.06 Å), to predict which compound will crystallize with which structure.
(b) What is the coordination number of iodide in each of these structures?
Q:The rutile and fluorite structures, shown here (anions are coloredThe rutile and fluorite structures, shown here (anions are colored green), are two of the most common structure types for ionic compounds where the cation to anion ratio is 1:2.
(a) For CaF2 and ZnF2 use ionic radii, Ca2+ (r = 1.14 Å), Zn2+ (r = 0.88 Å), F- (r = 1.19 Å), to predict which compound is more likely to crystallize with the fluorite structure
and which with the rutile structure.
(b) What are the coordination numbers of the cations and anions in each of these structures?
The rutile and fluorite structures, shown here (anions are coloredThe rutile and fluorite structures, shown here (anions are coloredQ:The coordination number for Mg2+ ion is usually six. AssumingThe coordination number for Mg2+ ion is usually six. Assuming this assumption holds, determine the anion coordination number in the following compounds:
(a) MgS,
(b) MgF2,
(c) MgO.
Q:The accompanying image shows photoluminescence from four different samples ofThe accompanying image shows photoluminescence from four different samples of CdTe nanocrystals, each embedded in a polymer matrix. The photoluminescence occurs becausethe samples are being irradiated by a UV light source. Then anocrystals in each vial have different average sizes. The sizes are 4.0, 3.5, 3.2, and 2.8 nm.
(a) Which vial contains the4.0-nm nanocrystals?
(b) Which vial contains the 2.8-nmnanocrystals?
(c) Crystals of CdTe that have sizes that are larger than approximately 100 nm have a band gap of 1.5 eV. What would be the wavelength and frequency of light emitted from these crystals? What type of light is this?
The accompanying image shows photoluminescence from four different samples ofQ:The coordination number for the AI3+ ion is typically betweenThe coordination number for the AI3+ ion is typically between four and six. Use the anion coordination number to determine the coordination number in the following compounds:
(a) AlF3 where the fluoride ions are two coordinate,
(b) Al2O3 where the oxygen ions are six coordinate,
(c) AlN where then it ride ions are four coordinate?
Q:Classify each of the following statements as true or false: (a)Classify each of the following statements as true or false:
(a) Although both molecular solids and covalent-network solids have covalent bonds, the melting points of molecular solids are much lower because their covalent bonds are much weaker.
(b) Other factors being equal, highly symmetric molecules tend to form solids with higher melting points than asymmetrically shaped molecules?
Q:Classify each of the following statements as true or false: (a)Classify each of the following statements as true or false:
(a) For molecular solids the melting point generally increases as the strengths of the covalent bonds increase.
(b) For molecular solids the melting point generally increases as the strengths of the intermolecular forces increase.
Q:Both covalent-network solids and ionic solids can have melting pointsBoth covalent-network solids and ionic solids can have melting points well in excess of room temperature, and both can be poor conductors of electricity in their pure form. However, in other ways their properties are quite different.
(a) Which type of solid is more likely to dissolve in water?
(b) Which type of solid can become an electrical conductor via chemical substitution?
Q:Which of the following properties are typical characteristics of aWhich of the following properties are typical characteristics of a covalent-network solid, a metallic solid, or both:
(a) Ductility,
(b) Hardness,
(c) High melting point?
Q:For each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which oneFor each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which one will have the larger band gap:
(a) CdS or CdTe,
(b) GaN or InP,
(c) GaAs or InAs?
Q:For each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which oneFor each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which one will have the larger band gap:
(a) InP or InAs,
(b) Ge or AlP,
(c) AgI or CdTe?
Q:For each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which oneFor each of the following pairs of semiconductors, which one will have the larger band gap:
(a) InP or InAs,
(b) Ge or AlP,
(c) AgI or CdTe? Discuss.Q:If you want to dope GaAs to make a p-typeIf you want to dope GaAs to make a p-type semiconductor with an element to replace As, which element(s) would you pick?
Q:Silicon has a band gap of 1.1 eV at roomSilicon has a band gap of 1.1 eV at room temperature.
(a) What wavelength of light would a photon of this energy correspond to?
(b) Draw a vertical line at this wavelength in the figure shown, which shows the light output of the sun as a function of wavelength. Does silicon absorb all, none, or a portion of the visible light that comes from the sun?
Silicon has a band gap of 1.1 eV at roomQ:Covalent bonding occurs in both molecular and covalent network solids.Covalent bonding occurs in both molecular and covalent network solids. Why do these two kinds of solids differ so greatly in their hardness and melting points?
Q:Cadmium telluride is an important material for solar cells. (a) WhatCadmium telluride is an important material for solar cells.
(a) What is the band gap of CdTe?
(b) What wavelength of light would a photon of this energy correspond to?
(c) Draw a vertical line at this wavelength in the figure shown with Exercise 12.69, which shows the light output of the sun as a function of wavelength.
(d) With respect to silicon, does CdTe absorb a larger or smaller portion of the solar spectrum?
Q:The semiconductor GaP has a band gap of 2.2 eV.The semiconductor GaP has a band gap of 2.2 eV. Green LEDs are made from pure GaP. What wavelength of light would be emitted from an LED made from GaP?
Q:The first LEDs were made from GaAs, which has aThe first LEDs were made from GaAs, which has a band gap of 1.43 eV. What wavelength of light would be emitted from an LED made from GaAs? What region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this light correspond to: UV, visible, or IR?
Q:GaAs and GaP (Eg = 2.26 eV) make solid solutionsGaAs and GaP (Eg = 2.26 eV) make solid solutions that have the same crystal structure as the parent materials, with As and P randomly distributed throughout the crystal. GaPxAs1 -x exists for any value of x. If we assume that the band gap varies linearly with composition between x = 0 and x = 1, estimate the band gap for GaP0.5As0.5. What wavelength of light does this correspond to?
Q:Red light-emitting diodes are made from GaAs and GaP solidRed light-emitting diodes are made from GaAs and GaP solid solutions, GaPxAs1-x (see Exercise 12.73). The original red LEDs emitted light with a wavelength of 660 nm. If we assume that the band gap varies linearly with composition between x = 0 and x = 1, estimate the composition (the value of x) that is used in these LEDs?
Q:What is a monomer? Give three examples of monomers takenWhat is a monomer? Give three examples of monomers taken from the examples given in the chapter?
Q:An ester is a compound formed by a condensation reactionAn ester is a compound formed by a condensation reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Read the discussion of esters in Section 24.4 and then give an example of a reaction forming an ester. How might this kind of reaction be extended to form a polymer (a polyester)?
Q:Write a chemical equation for formation of a polymer viaWrite a chemical equation for formation of a polymer via a condensation reaction from the monomers succinic acid (HOOCCH2CH2COOH) and ethylenediamine (H2NCH2CH2NH2)?
Q:Draw the structure of the monomer(s) employed to form eachDraw the structure of the monomer(s) employed to form each of the following polymers shown in Table 12.5:
(a) Polyvinyl chloride,
(b) Nylon 6,6,
(c) Polyethylene terephthalate?
Q:Silicon is the fundamental component of integrated circuits. Si hasSilicon is the fundamental component of integrated circuits. Si has the same structure as diamond. Is Si a molecular, metallic, ionic, or covalent-network solid?
Q:Write the chemical equation that represents the formation of (a) polychloropreneWrite the chemical equation that represents the formation of
(a) polychloroprene from chloroprene (polychloroprene is used in highway-pavement seals, expansion joints, conveyor belts, and wire and cable jackets);
Write the chemical equation that represents the formation of 
(a) polychloroprene

(b) Polyacrylonitrile from acrylonitrile (polyacrylonitrile is used in home furnishings, craft yarns, clothing, and many other items).

Write the chemical equation that represents the formation of 
(a) polychloropreneQ:The nylon Nomex®, a condensation polymer, has the following structure: DrawThe nylon Nomex®, a condensation polymer, has the following structure:
The nylon Nomex®, a condensation polymer, has the following structure: 
Draw

Draw the structures of the two monomers that yield Nomex®.

Q:Proteins are polymers formed by condensation reactions of amino acids,Proteins are polymers formed by condensation reactions of amino acids, which have the general structure
Proteins are polymers formed by condensation reactions of amino acids,

In this structure, R represents —- H, —-CH3, or another group of atoms. Draw the general structure for a polyamino acid polymer formed by condensation polymerization of the molecule shown here?

Q:What molecular features make a polymer flexible? Explain how cross-linkingWhat molecular features make a polymer flexible? Explain how cross-linking affects the chemical and physical properties of the polymer?
Q:Are high molecular weights and a high degree of crystallinityAre high molecular weights and a high degree of crystallinity always desirable properties of a polymer? Explain.
Q:Briefly describe each of the following: (a) Elastomer, (b) Thermoplastic, (c) Thermosetting plastBriefly describe each of the following:
(a) Elastomer,
(b) Thermoplastic,
(c) Thermosetting plastic?
Q:Explain why “bands” may not be the most accurate descriptionExplain why “bands” may not be the most accurate description of bonding in a solid when the solid has nanoscale dimensions?
Q:CdS has a band gap of 2.4 eV. If largeCdS has a band gap of 2.4 eV. If large crystals of CdS are illuminated with ultraviolet light, they emit light equal to the band gap energy.
(a) What color is the emitted light?
(b) Would appropriately sized CdS quantum dots be able to emit blue light?
(c) What about red light?
Q:True or false: (a) The band gap of a semiconductor decreasesTrue or false:

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