Biomolecules, describe the major classes of small biological molecules: amino acids, sugars, lipids and nucleotides.

Notes: Not less than two thousand words. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your own words. Answer all questions. Do not include the question(s) on your essays. Question 1: Biomolecules Describe the major classes of small biological molecules: amino acids, sugars, lipids and nucleotides. Include in your answer: a. a comparison of similarities and differences between the concepts of electron shells, the octet rule and electron orbitals b. a description of sp3 hybrid orbitals and how they influence the shapes of molecules c. a description of carbon skeletons of small biological molecules and how adding functional groups change their properties and defines the major biological molecular classes Question 2: Enzymes and Bioenergetics Describe the structure and roles of enzymes in metabolic pathways. Include in your answer: a. the structure of proteins, enzyme function, and the roles of coenzymes, cofactors and allosteric regulators b. a description of coupled reactions that drive metabolic pathways and the reasons that some molecules are unstable c. a description of the structure of ATP, the reasons for which it is unstable, and the role(s) of the phosphate group once transferred to another molecule Question 3: Chloroplast and Mitochondrion Describe the structure and function of the chloroplast and mitochondrion. Include in your answer: a. a description of each compartment, the membranes, and the localized activities of both organelles b. the special properties of chlorophyll and the mechanism of action of the light harvesting complex in the chloroplast c. the sequences of events in both electron transport chains from electron sources to the electron sinks and the roles of NADH and NADPH Question 4: DNA Structure and Function Describe the evidence for the fact that DNA is the genetic material and the sequence of events leading from the sequence of nucleotides of DNA to the sequence of amino acids in proteins and their secretion. Include in your answer: a. the early evidence for the location of genes on chromosomes, the first evidence that DNA was the genetic material, and that genes determined the structure of proteins b. a description of the mechanisms and structures involved in of transcription and translation c. a description of the cellular structures involved in protein synthesis and secretion References two lines below the last line of your answer to question 4, list all sources used in writing your essay. Do not use in-text citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “References” section. You must have a References section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers.

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